A fermentation vessel, also known as an FV or fermenter (and the periodic introduction of a fermenter), is a vessel, barrel or various other container in which wort is stored while it is fermented into beer.
Fermentation vessels have actually been a key part of even the most humble home brewery. In fact, they have varied greatly in time almost; almost anything that can hold liquid is likely to be a fermenter. That said, modern technology for fermentation vessels has actually made substantial progress in the last half century.
Historically, the development of fermentation vessels does carefully reflect advances in development techniques and modern technology. For thousands of years, these ceramic vessels have been the fermentation and storage space for many beers (and other white wines).
but by the 19th century most wood fermentation vessels were lined with some sort of pitch, tar or material. Wood fermentation vessels come in different sizes – large or small, open or closed, upright or straight.
A cylindrical storage tank at the Paulaner brewery in Munich. The cylindrical container actually has an inclined conical base, which, to name a few examples, allows the manufacturer to quickly remove the yeast for processing or re-scraping. Roger Putman
To name a few, this event spurred breweries to start looking for a variety of other products than wood for large fermentation vessels. In the late 19th century, most new and expanding large breweries would certainly have consisted of
square concrete fermentation vessels lined with materials, slate, enamel or asphalt. Here is a summary of 19th century London brewery designs, as defined in 1911.
The following fermentation process took place in one of the superb areas listed below, with the floor of the fermentation area made entirely of slate.
Known as the “Havelock area”, this area was actually developed during the Indian Mutiny and is shaped like the letter L, measuring 210 feet and 132 feet respectively.
It includes slate and wood fermentation vessels, each with a copper parachute for skimming yeast, connected to the yeast storage tanks listed below.
The introduction of medium steel vessels coincided with the decentralized use of commercial “man-made” refrigeration. In the early days of refrigeration,
air-conditioning of fermentation vessels was achieved by distributing cooling air in the fermentation warehouse or by distributing cooling water or brine (with steel coils) inside the vessel.
This method maintained the original state and, since the storage tanks were neither insulated nor opened, the temperature levels could vary significantly from vessel to vessel.
As a result, medium-strength steel tanks actually had to be lined, so the most popular products were enamel, glass and, later, epoxy-based polymer products.
As long as the enamel or glass lining is not damaged, this is an easy to clean and completely sanitary area of the vessel’s interior surface.
The procedure in many breweries was still manual and included container cleaning, as well as guys having to get into these containers and scrub them by hand after each use.
One point is boosting; although some large U.S. breweries still used open fermentation until the 1970s, the standard in the U.S.
gradually shifted to completely closed fermentation. This made fermentation more sanitary and reduced the collection and reuse of carbon dioxide produced by the yeast.
Around 1920, lightweight aluminum became cost effective and many breweries began to build fermentation tanks from this lightweight steel.
Lightweight aluminum has the significant advantage of being unaffected by wort and beer spoilage and therefore can be used without the need for a flimsy internal cell liner. However,
a significant disadvantage of lightweight aluminum was that it was corroded by corrosive soft drinks (hydroxide),
which for many years had been the recommended cleaning agent for cleaning brewery equipment.
Shortly after the introduction of lightweight aluminum,
stainless steel emerged commercially as a building and construction product. When used in breweries, essentially and to this day,
it is the undisputed initial choice for products used in the manufacture of fermentation vessels, a product that offers several benefits. Pipes, pumps, cut-offs, and virtually all other brewery equipment directly related to beer are made of stainless steel.
Typically, they are stacked in many layers in the fermentation warehouse and it is unusual to protect the tanks independently, as the cost of doing so is reasonable. Due to this factor, all fermentation vessels are used only for the main fermentation,
so that when the energy fermentation is actually completed, the beer is definitely repositioned by means of pipes and pumps into another storage tank for the last growth.
Unitanks (Universal Vessels).
This development was the situation at the time
5. Collecting CO2 for regeneration (and reuse/sale) throughout the main fermentation process is very easy in cylindrical tanks, rather than in the old open fermenters.
6. Chopped yeast is more reliable, more discriminating, and more sanitary in cylindrical tanks than in the old style tanks.
It is worth noting that the origins of cylindrical vessels can be traced back to 1908 and 1927 licenses, however changes in stainless steel fabrication were critical to making the manufacture and use of such vessels functional.
The expansion of cylindrical storage tanks began in Ireland in the early 1960s with the use of up to 11,500 hl (9798 U.S. barrels) of upright (i.e., round storage tank upright) stainless steel vessels. At the same time, the beer was heated by its own fermentation,
moving toward the bottom of the vessel and toward the top of the storage tank in order to cool it again.
The overall geometry of the container was also tested in the 1970s and 1980s, resulting in taller,
slimmer cylindrical containers that saved floor space. It soon became apparent that when these hypothetical rocket containers (with reference to their appearance) exceeded a height-to-diameter ratio of 5:1,
large mixing could not be achieved and the yeast could not withstand extreme hydrostatic pressures. As a result, the current height to diameter ratio of cylindrical tanks typically ranges from 1:1 to 5:1.
the top of the cylindrical vessel is fitted with a “cleaning device” that allows for automatic and simple cleaning of the interior of the tank. Better yet, there may be more than one power
outlet at the bottom of the container so that the manufacturer can suck the beer out of the container without adding the yeast, which is actually dissolved in the bottom of the cone.
The outdoor containers are located in a hypothetical container pasture where they are very closed off from each other. Instead,
all piping to and from the containers comes from the storage area and is connected through the surrounding walls to the beer processing location within the brewery.
The tip of the fermentation vessel.
The most modern breweries still use cylindrical storage tanks. The latest developments in modern technology for these tanks include what one might call storage tank “units”,
which feel like mechanical mixing of fermented beer (pumping recirculation from bottom to top), and innovative control systems that instantly regulate the fermentation process and define the fermentation process.
Customs are maintained properly.
With the introduction of cylindrical tanks, not all typical vessel types disappeared. The process requirements for developing standard British beers have actually led many large breweries to stick with the standard geometry of a
square vessel with a “permeable ceiling” from which the typical top-fermenting yeast would certainly be collected at the end of the main fermentation and also from which the yeast would be collected immediately by mixing the injection and closing the collection.
Many British breweries maintain open fermentation habits. Several makers there believe that open fermentation tends to produce more extreme odors in Weissbier than closed fermentation.
Marston’s Brewery in Burton, Trent, England,
is recognized for actually promoting the once-prevalent Burton Combination system, which ferments in oak barrels and removes yeast in open tanks between barrels. This remains a notable issue, and Marston’s makers claim that without it,
their frontrunner beers would certainly not taste consistent.
The spread of the cylindrical container began in Ireland in the early 1960s, when upright (i.e., round container upright) stainless steel containers of up to 11,500 hl (9,798 U.S. barrels) were used. Right around the same time, the beer was being heated by its own fermentation,
moving toward the bottom of the tank and toward the top of the vessel to be cooled again. What’s more, there may be more than one power outlet at the bottom of the tank so that the manufacturer can suck the beer out of the tank without adding yeast,
which has actually been removed at the bottom of the cone.
Instead, all piping to and from the tanks comes from a container ranch and is connected through the surrounding walls to the beer processing location within the brewery.
The latest developments in modern technology for these tanks include what one might call tank “installations” with a sense of mechanical mixing of fermented beer (pumping recirculation from the bottom to the top), and innovative control systems